Sunday, July 31, 2016

Lenora Botticher*


Lenora Helen Botticher was born on May 29, 1889 in St Louis, Missouri to John and Lenora Flach Botticher. This was just before the end of the Spanish American War. There were soldiers in Camp Bell in Jefferson Barracks.


In 1004, the city hosted the World's Fair and the Summer Olympics, attracting millions of visitors to the city.


In 1911, she graduated from Washington University.

 She lived with her parents at 4044 Flad Ave. Lenora's Mother, Lenora Helen Flach Botticher died on November 1, 1913. Her father John Louis Botticher died on July 9, 1916. After her father died, she lived at 2929 Henrietta, with her Aunt Clementine, Uncle Frank Richard Meyer and their family.

World War I took place between 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. The US did not enter the war until April of 1917. During the war, there was an increased demand for workers since many men were serving in the military. When they came home, it caused several problems.

Shortage of Jobs
In 1917 the United States had an active economy boosted by World War I. With many would-be workers absent for active service in the war, industries were in need of labor. Seeking better work and living opportunities, as well as an escape from harsh conditions, the Great Migration of African Americans out of the South toward industrial centers across the northern and Midwestern United States was well underway. For example, blacks were arriving in St. Louis during Spring 1917 at the rate of 2,000 per week.[2] When industries became embroiled in labor strikes, traditionally white unions sought to strengthen their bargaining position by hindering or excluding black workers, while industry owners utilizing blacks as replacements or strikebreakers added to the deep existing societal divisions.[3] Wikipedia

Flu Epidemic
State officials first reported on the presence of influenza in Missouri on October 11, 1918. However, influenza had appeared in the state long before that date. By the third week of October, 3,765 influenza cases and 90 deaths had been reported from St. Louis, with 558 cases and 13 deaths being reported for October 16th alone. (Source: The Influenza Epidemic of 181*-1819) Link


Women's Suffrage
In the spring of 1919, the 50th Missouri General Assembly passed the Presidential Suffrage bill, which gave women the right to vote in presidential elections.[1] St. Louis League President Christine Fordyce appealed to the legislature in a speech saying, "fifty years ago my grandmother came before the Missouri legislature and asked for the enfranchisement of women; twenty-five years ago, my mother came to make the same request; tonight I am asking for the ballot for women. Are you going to make it necessary for my daughter to appear in her turn?" Ms. Fordyce's daughter would not have to make the same appeal, as soon suffrage was supported at the federal level.[4] The Missouri legislature ratified the Susan B. Anthony Amendment to the U.S. Constitution during a special session in July of that year.[1] Governor Gardner called a special session and then amendment passed by a vote of 125 to 4 in the House and 29 to 3 in the Senate.[5] Missouri became the eleventh state to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment.[1] (Source: Wikipedia)

She could have voted for the first time in the 1920 presidential election. If she did, we don't know if she voted for Warren G Harding or James M Cox.
In 1920, she is teaching school and living with her Aunt Clementine & family.


In 1940, she living in Hamilton Hotel and working as a teacher.
Hamilton House


 Lenora Botticher's Quilt


She died on January 13, 1987, and is buried in New Saint Marcus Cemetery in Saint Louis.






Thursday, June 30, 2016

Lenora Flach

Could be Ida, Clementine and Lenora Flach





Lenora Flach was born on 5 March 1858 to Frederick Flach and Cattherine Halte in St Louis, Missouri. Both of Lenora's parents are listed as having been born in Germany. She married John Louis Botticher and they had one daughter, Lenora Helen Botticher. Lenora Botticher was born on 29 May 188 in St Louis. John's parents were George H L Botticher and Alvina Koenig.

In 1880, she is living with her sister Ida and her brother-in-law Gustav Orth.

Lenora Helen Flach was a teacher before she married John Botticher.   She taught third grade at Laclede Elementary School from 1880-1885 (maybe longer) (Source: Annual Report of the Board of Directors of the St. Louis Public Schools)
See photo and a bit of school history here


John Botticher was the son of George Louis and Alvina Koenig Botticher. No record of their marriage has been found, but the 1900 census states that they have been married 14 years.  The same census also said that Lenora had two children, but only one was living.

The 1910 census says that they both grew up speaking German at home (listed as Mother tongue).  They live at 3906 Russell Ave.

 Lenora Helen Flach Botticher died on November 1, 1913. She was buried in New St Marcus Cemetery on November 4th.



John is living at 4044A Flad Ave and working as an inspector for the street department.  His daughter is living with him and working as a teacher.

John Louis Botticher died on July 9, 1916.  John Botticher is buried in New St Marcus Cemetery.

Monday, June 13, 2016

The Flach Family during and after the Civil War*

St Louis 1872 Photo credit: See page for author [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons Link



In 1860, Catherine (age 41)was living in Ward 1 of St Louis with her children: Wilhelm (William), Adelheid (Adeline), Fred, Ida, Mathilda, Clemete (Clementine), Georg (George), Laura and Lenora. She is living next door to Adam Halter who is 34.

Laura Flach (Lenora Flach's twin sister) died on February 9, 1861

In 1865, the family lives at 226 S Seventh Street.

In 1870, she is living in Ward 4 of St Louis with William, Magdalene, Clementine and Helen. She is listed as having $5,000 in real estate and $400 in personal property. She lives next door to her daughter Ida and Ida's husband Gustav Orth. Orth is listed as a retail grocer.

Catherine Halter Flach was living at 810 6th Street when she died on November 8, 1872. She is buried in Gatewood Gardens Cemetery in St Louis.

Probate for her estate was opened on November 27, 1872. Her probate record is more than 100 pages longs and includes six lots that she owned that bordered Pontiac Street and California Ave. I think it is safe to say that Catherine was a very capable business woman. After the death of her husband, she might have been expected to take in boarders to make ends meet, but there is no evidence that she ever did this. She purchased the property on California Avenue in 1864.

Lots that Catherine Halter Flach owned

Signatures from estate files



Children:
• William (1840-1872)
• Adeline E. (1841-1924) marries William Hall Teaby on September 6, 1866 in St Louis. They later move to California.
• Frederick B (1844-1882) marries Sarah Russell on April 27, 1870 in Madison County, Missouri.
• Ida (1846-1936) marries Gustave Orth on November 23, 1865 in St Louis.
• Charles (1848-1855), no additonal information
• Matilda Magdelina (1852-1927) marries James Madison Cummings. No marriage record found, but the couple moved to California.
• Clemetine (1852-1926) Marries Frank R. Meyer on November 21, 1877 in St Louis.
• George (1855-1932) He never marries, He works as a foreman in a lead mill. His sister-in-law, Sarah Russell Flach and her daughter live with with him after her husband, Frederick Flach, died.
• Lenora Helen (1858-1913) twin to Laura, Marries John Louis Botticher
• Laura Flach (1858-1861) twin to Lenora, died on February 9, 1861




Wednesday, June 1, 2016

St Louis in the CIvil War

View of Saint Louis (Source: Library of Congress)



"The Convention (Missouri State Convention 1861) was fully informed how matters stood in St Louis for on the 20th of March Isidore Bush stated on behalf of the thousands of German citizens whom I have the honor to represent that should a conflict be inevitable your German fellow citizens will stand by the Government and by the Union." (Source: The Union Cause in St. Louis in 1861: An Historical Sketch, Robert Julius Rombauer, p 172)


Arsenal at St Louis  Link

Camp Jackson  Link

The secessionist element was in the majority in practically all parts of the interior of the State. St Louis was an exception. This determined the then Governor Claiborne F Jackson, a sympathizer with the slave owners, to strike a blow to capture St Louis, as this would put him in possession of the St Louis arsenal. The first step of the secessionists in this direction was the erection of Camp Jackson.
Camp Jackson
This plan was frustrated through the vigilance of General Nathaniel Lyon who had but recently been transferred from Fort Riley to St Louis, in command of the small garrison holding the arsenal. The officers in command of the first four regiments on the side of the Union were among the members of the St Louis Turn Union, located at Tenth street between Market and Walnut streets. Four companies of Turners had assembled early in the night at the St Louis arsenal and placed themselves at the disposition of General Lyon. A constant stream of German volunteers added to the regiments and were provided with arms by the commander. There were approximately 800 men, of whom nine tenths were of direct German descent. This was the situation on May 10, 1861. A council of war was held by General Lyon Blair Sigel and the others and General Lyon decided to anticipate the rebels by striking a blow before the opposition was ready to act.

The volunteers were assigned to their posts during the night. By 10 o'clock the next morning, Camp Jackson was surrounded and General Lyon demanded its surrender. Seeing no way out, all the hate and rage of the rebels turned against the loyal Germans. As they were being marched to the arsenal, as prisoners street riots broke out at many places along the line, and the Germans were assailed on every hand with cries of dirty Dutch and other insulting names. (Source: Issues and Events, Volume 8, Vital Issue Company, 1918, p. 312)

By Unknown - Link, Public Domain, Link


This eventually led to gunfire. Exactly what provoked the shooting remains unclear, but the most common explanation is that a drunkard stumbled into the path of the marching soldiers, and fired a pistol into their ranks, fatally wounding Captain Constantin Blandowski of the 3rd Missouri Volunteer Infantry.(Source: The Role of German Immigrants in Civil War Missouri, Link) The Volunteers, in reaction, fired over the heads of the crowd, and then into the crowd. Some 28 civilians were killed, including women and children; more than 75 were wounded.(Source: Jefferson Barracks, Sandie Grassino and Art Schuermann, (2011), p.33)

Naturally St Louis was thrown into a great deal of excitement by the events of the day. The Missouri Republican in its issue of the next day (May,11) gave full account of what had happened the day before. Regarding the excitement that prevailed during evening it said, "It is almost impossible to describe the intense exhibition of feeling which was manifested last evening the city. All the most frequented streets and avenues were thronged with citizens in the highest state of excitement and loud huzzas and occasional shots were heard in various localities. There was very little congregating on the street corners. Everybody was on the move and banished from their thoughts. Crowds of men rushed through the principal bearing banners and devices suited to their fancies and by turns cheering or groaning. Some armed and others were not armed, and all seemed to be at work." A charge was made on a gun store, HE Dimick, on Main Street, the door was broken and the crowd secured fifteen or twenty guns before sufficient number of police could be collected to arrest proceedings. Chief McDonough marched down about twenty policemen armed with muskets and in dispersing the mob, and protecting the from further molestation. Squads of armed were stationed at several of the most public corners the offices of the Missouri Democrat and the Anzeiger Westetts were placed under guard for protection. 

Public Domain, Link

 
As the evening wore on quiet was restored and the 2 streets became cleared of people. Order prevailed during the next day until early in the evening, when another street skirmish occurred between a regiment of Home Guards made up largely of Germans and a band of Southern sympathizers. The Home Guards were attacked while on their way from the arsenal where they had been armed. Six men were killed in the fray four of whom belonged to the Home Guards, and several innocent passersby were wounded. The incident served to stir anew the passions of the people and to deepen the gulf between the two factions. The climax was reached on Sunday the second day 3 after the capture of the camp. Terrible fear came upon the people, especially the Southern sympathizers. Many felt that the Germans were going to overrun the city and put to death all the Southerners. Early that morning some of the prominent citizens of St Louis went to General Harney, who had returned the day before, and implored him to protect the city against the attack which they thought the Germans were planning to make. General Harney assured them that there was no danger, but to quiet their fears he sent out detachments of soldiers from the arsenal to those parts of the city that were thought to be the most exposed to attack, and he had posted a proclamation declaring there was no ground for fear and appealing to the people to be calm. These acts of Harney however had exactly the opposite effect from what he intended, instead of quieting the people, they excited them still more, instead of allaying, they intensified their alarm. By early afternoon a great host of people were fleeing terror stricken and in great haste from the city. Carriages and wagons filled with trunks valises hastily made bundles and frightened men, women, and children were flying along the streets toward every point of the compass. Some scared souls unable to obtain a vehicle of any kind were walking or running with breathless haste, carrying all sorts of bundles in their hands, under their arms, or on their shoulders. All these were fleeing from imaginary danger. But the fancied conflagration and slaughter which they believed themselves to be escaping were to them awful realities, enacted with all their attendant horrors over and over again within their minds. Some of the panic stricken people fled into the country and found shelter in the villages and farmhouses. Many crossed the river in ferries and sought refuge in Illinois notwithstanding the fact that it was a strong Union state. Others took passage in steamboats and went either up or down the river. Those who did not flee from the city barricaded themselves in their homes and awaited the coming of the enemy with guns loaded. The dreaded calamity however did not come and in a day or two the refugees began to come back to their homes and places of business. (Source:A History of Missouri, Eugene Morrow Violette,p 346-348)


Civil courts remained open in St. Louis throughout the Civil War, but martial law trumped civil law from August, 1861 (Link) until General John Pope rescinded it in March, 1865. (Source: Cities in American Political History, edited by Richard Dilworth, SAGE Publications, Sep 13, 2011, p. 231) Also see Civil War fortifications in St Louis. Link

Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Events Leading up to the CIvil War

By Unknown Link, From Wikipedia Link


Background:

Missouri Compromise 1820 The Missouri Compromise was a United States federal statute devised by Henry Clay. It regulated slavery in the country's western territories by prohibiting the practice in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north, except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri. The compromise was agreed to by both the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress and passed as a law in 1820, under the presidency of James Monroe. More information: Link

Missouri becomes a state 1821 Missouri's Struggle for Statehood Read about it here: Link
Compromise of 1850The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican–American War (1846–48). The compromise, drafted by Whig Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky and brokered by Clay and Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois, reduced sectional conflict. Controversy arose over the Fugitive Slave provision. More information: Link
Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854
During the senate adjournment, the issues of the railroad and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise became entangled in Missouri politics as Atchison campaigned for re-election against the forces of Thomas Hart Benton. Atchison was maneuvered into choosing between antagonizing the state railroad interests and antagonizing the state slaveholders. Finally Atchison took the position that he would rather see Nebraska "sink in hell" before he would allow it to be overrun by free soilers.[5]
The immediate responses to the passing of the Kansas–Nebraska Act fell into two classes. The first, and less common, response was held by Douglas's supporters, who believed that the bill would "[withdraw] the question of slavery from the halls of Congress and the political arena, committing it to the arbitration of those who were immediately interested in, and alone responsible for, its consequences."[37] In other words, they believed that the Act would leave decisions about slavery more in the hands of the people, and less under the carefully balanced jurisdiction of the Federal Government. The second and far more common response was one of outrage, interpreting Douglas's actions as part of "an atrocious plot."[38] Especially in the eyes of northerners, the Kansas–Nebraska Act was pure southern aggression, an attack on the power and beliefs of free states.[39] This response led to calls for public action against the south, as seen in broadsides advertising gatherings in northern states to publicly discuss what to do about the presumption of the Act.[40]
Bleeding Kansas
Pro-slavery settlers came to Kansas mainly from neighboring Missouri. Their influence in territorial elections was often bolstered by resident Missourians who crossed into Kansas solely for the purpose of voting in such ballots. They formed groups such as the Blue Lodges and were dubbed border ruffians, a term coined by opponent and abolitionist Horace Greeley. Abolitionist settlers, known as "Jayhawkers" moved from the East with express purpose of making Kansas a free state. A clash between the opposing sides was inevitable.[41]
The Kansas–Nebraska Act divided the nation and pointed it toward civil war.[65] The act itself virtually nullified the Missouri Compromise of 1820. The turmoil over the act split both the Democratic and Whig parties and gave rise to the Republican Party, which split the United States into two major political camps, North (Republican) and South (Democratic). More information: Link

Financial Panic of 1857
The Panic of 1857 was a sudden downturn in the economy of the United States that occurred in 1857. A general recession first emerged late in 1856, but the successive failure of banks and businesses that characterized the panic began in mid-1857. While the overall economic downturn was brief, the recovery was unequal, and the lasting impact was more political than economic. The panic began with a loss of confidence in an Ohio bank, but spread as railroads failed, and fears that the US Federal Government would be unable to pay obligations in specie mounted. More than 5,000 American businesses failed within a year, and unemployment was accompanied by protest meetings in urban areas. Eventually the panic and depression spread to Europe, South America and the Far East. No recovery was evident in the northern parts of the United States for a year and a half, and the full impact did not dissipate until the American Civil War. More information: Link

Dred Scott Decision (1857)
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), also known simply as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that "a negro, whose ancestors were imported into [the U.S.], and sold as slaves",[2][3] whether enslaved or free, could not be an American citizen and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court,[4][5] and that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States. Dred Scott, an enslaved man of "the negro African race"[6] who had been taken by his owners to free states and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. In a 7–2 decision written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, the court denied Scott's request. The decision was only the second time that the Supreme Court had ruled an Act of Congress to be unconstitutional.[7] More information: Link




Thursday, May 19, 2016

German Protestant organization in St Louis


St Marcus Church On Russell Ave at McNair Ave.  From Google Maps Link



The earliest German Protestant organization in St Louis was that of the German Evangelical Church of the Holy Ghost, which was established in 1834. Its membership embraced both the Lutheran and Reformed denominations which continued to together for nine years. In the year 1842, however, dissensions arose on points of doctrine, and in July, 1843, the pastor of the Church of the Holy Ghost Rev GW Wall, with Messrs Buenemann, Schmidt W Schrader, Jacob Westerman, and seventy others who adhered to the doctrines of the Reformed denomination, withdrew and on the 31st of July, organized the German Evangelical Congregation St Louis. They worshiped in the Benton school house on Sixth Street between Locust and St Street until 1845 when they erected two churches one called the North Church, afterwards St German Evangelical Church at Carr and Fifteenth Streets, and the other known as South Church, afterwards St Marcus or St Mark's Church, at the of Jackson and Soulard Streets. Both were alike in size and design each being thirty by forty feet in dimensions and remained the common property of congregation until 1856, when a division was effected and two distinct churches were organized. 
 
The German Evangelical Congregation of St Louis in July, 1843, formed the nucleus of the Evangelical Synod of the West which has since over the United States. This Synod in with a few congregations in Canada is called German Evangelical Synod of North America, being the American Branch of the Prussian Church, it receives biennially the interest on a fund which was subscribed some twenty years ago, the Evangelical congregations of Prussia for benefit of their brethren in this country. The German Protestant Orphans Home Photo Link , formerly within city limits but now ten miles from the court on St Charles Rock road, was organized by the German Evangelical Synod as was also the Good Samaritan Hospital, Twenty-fifth and O Fallon Streets. 

Photo link 

German Churches in St Louis: Link 

Old St Marcus Cemetery Link

St Marcus: Link 

Tuesday, May 17, 2016

Frederick Flache and Catharine Halter*


Inspired by the writings of Gottfried Duden, many Germans sought to immigrate to Missouri in to be able to purchase cheap land and to have more business opportunities. "The first period brought us exclusively men of learning and standing, which cannot be said in reference to all the later comers who were divided so to speak into two classes men of the higher culture and others with but little education. Physicians, lawyers, clergymen, teachers, artists, professional men of all branches in one class, mechanics, peasants, journeymen, and laborers of all classes, formed the mass of the other."

"The party arrived in Baltimore in early June. Traveling by train, wagon, and steamboat, the immigrants reached St. Louis on July 2. (1834) (Source:The Letters Of Frederick Steines by Norma Steines Cunningham is a translation of correspondence, poetry, and songs written by a Missouri immigrant who was the first German schoolmaster west of the Mississippi River, Link
(Source: The Story of Old St. Louis, Thomas Edwin Spencer, 1914, p. 167, available on Google Books Link)
July 24, 1834 Frederick Flach age 34, arrived in the Port of Baltimore, Maryland on the ship Medora from Bremen, Germany with Hermine Flach age 7. The ship name sailed from Bremen Germany.

Dec 31, 1838 Frederick Flack marries Catharina Ann Halter in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. She is listed as newly arrived from Germany on the marriage certificate. She may have been the daughter of Ludwig  (Lewis) Halter

Marriage Records from Frederick Flach Link

In 1840 Frederick Flach living in Apple Creek, Cape Girardeau, Missouri
In 1850, he is living in St Louis Ward 6, St Louis (Independent City), Missouri:
Frederick Flach age 50, occupation: Clerk
Catharine Flach age 31
William Flach age 10
Adeline Flach age 9
Frederick Flach age 6
Ida Flach age 4
Charles Flach age 2

Children born after 1850:
Mathilda Flach: 1851
Clementine Flach: 1852
George Flach: 1855
Lenora and Laura (twins) were born in 1858

During the years 1857-1858 he is a Justice of the Peace. The 1857 City Directory listed Frederick as a Justice of the Peace in the 2nd Ward with an office at 17 Carondelet, residing on Fulton. You can find a list of these records by searching for the lost marriage records of Frederick Flach.

Frederick Flach died from a stroke on 15 Mar 1858. (St Louis Death Records). He is buried in Holy Ghost Evangelical and Reformed Cemetery,also known as The Evangelical Protestant Cemetery Association of the Church of the Holy Ghost, or Holy Ghost Cemetery Link

Probate Records: Link

Catherine Flach states: "that at the time of the inventory of her deceased husband, there were was no grain, meat, vegetables, groceries or other provisions on hand or provided, necessary for the subsistance of the widow and her Children."

There is a declaration (image 27) by Charles Frassy that says, "that he was well acquainted with the
with the circumstances of the family of Frederick Flach, dec'd at the time of making the inventory, that there were no provisions in the house of any kind, and that the friends of the family had to provide for them."

The request was for an appropriation of $150, it is unclear if the money was provided.