Wednesday, May 25, 2016

Events Leading up to the CIvil War

By Unknown Link, From Wikipedia Link


Missouri Compromise 1820 The Missouri Compromise was a United States federal statute devised by Henry Clay. It regulated slavery in the country's western territories by prohibiting the practice in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36°30′ north, except within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri. The compromise was agreed to by both the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress and passed as a law in 1820, under the presidency of James Monroe. More information: Link

Missouri becomes a state 1821 Missouri's Struggle for Statehood Read about it here: Link
Compromise of 1850The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican–American War (1846–48). The compromise, drafted by Whig Senator Henry Clay of Kentucky and brokered by Clay and Democratic Senator Stephen Douglas of Illinois, reduced sectional conflict. Controversy arose over the Fugitive Slave provision. More information: Link
Kansas–Nebraska Act of 1854
During the senate adjournment, the issues of the railroad and the repeal of the Missouri Compromise became entangled in Missouri politics as Atchison campaigned for re-election against the forces of Thomas Hart Benton. Atchison was maneuvered into choosing between antagonizing the state railroad interests and antagonizing the state slaveholders. Finally Atchison took the position that he would rather see Nebraska "sink in hell" before he would allow it to be overrun by free soilers.[5]
The immediate responses to the passing of the Kansas–Nebraska Act fell into two classes. The first, and less common, response was held by Douglas's supporters, who believed that the bill would "[withdraw] the question of slavery from the halls of Congress and the political arena, committing it to the arbitration of those who were immediately interested in, and alone responsible for, its consequences."[37] In other words, they believed that the Act would leave decisions about slavery more in the hands of the people, and less under the carefully balanced jurisdiction of the Federal Government. The second and far more common response was one of outrage, interpreting Douglas's actions as part of "an atrocious plot."[38] Especially in the eyes of northerners, the Kansas–Nebraska Act was pure southern aggression, an attack on the power and beliefs of free states.[39] This response led to calls for public action against the south, as seen in broadsides advertising gatherings in northern states to publicly discuss what to do about the presumption of the Act.[40]
Bleeding Kansas
Pro-slavery settlers came to Kansas mainly from neighboring Missouri. Their influence in territorial elections was often bolstered by resident Missourians who crossed into Kansas solely for the purpose of voting in such ballots. They formed groups such as the Blue Lodges and were dubbed border ruffians, a term coined by opponent and abolitionist Horace Greeley. Abolitionist settlers, known as "Jayhawkers" moved from the East with express purpose of making Kansas a free state. A clash between the opposing sides was inevitable.[41]
The Kansas–Nebraska Act divided the nation and pointed it toward civil war.[65] The act itself virtually nullified the Missouri Compromise of 1820. The turmoil over the act split both the Democratic and Whig parties and gave rise to the Republican Party, which split the United States into two major political camps, North (Republican) and South (Democratic). More information: Link

Financial Panic of 1857
The Panic of 1857 was a sudden downturn in the economy of the United States that occurred in 1857. A general recession first emerged late in 1856, but the successive failure of banks and businesses that characterized the panic began in mid-1857. While the overall economic downturn was brief, the recovery was unequal, and the lasting impact was more political than economic. The panic began with a loss of confidence in an Ohio bank, but spread as railroads failed, and fears that the US Federal Government would be unable to pay obligations in specie mounted. More than 5,000 American businesses failed within a year, and unemployment was accompanied by protest meetings in urban areas. Eventually the panic and depression spread to Europe, South America and the Far East. No recovery was evident in the northern parts of the United States for a year and a half, and the full impact did not dissipate until the American Civil War. More information: Link

Dred Scott Decision (1857)
Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857), also known simply as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held that "a negro, whose ancestors were imported into [the U.S.], and sold as slaves",[2][3] whether enslaved or free, could not be an American citizen and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court,[4][5] and that the federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States. Dred Scott, an enslaved man of "the negro African race"[6] who had been taken by his owners to free states and territories, attempted to sue for his freedom. In a 7–2 decision written by Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, the court denied Scott's request. The decision was only the second time that the Supreme Court had ruled an Act of Congress to be unconstitutional.[7] More information: Link

Thursday, May 19, 2016

German Protestant organization in St Louis

St Marcus Church On Russell Ave at McNair Ave.  From Google Maps Link

The earliest German Protestant organization in St Louis was that of the German Evangelical Church of the Holy Ghost, which was established in 1834. Its membership embraced both the Lutheran and Reformed denominations which continued to together for nine years. In the year 1842, however, dissensions arose on points of doctrine, and in July, 1843, the pastor of the Church of the Holy Ghost Rev GW Wall, with Messrs Buenemann, Schmidt W Schrader, Jacob Westerman, and seventy others who adhered to the doctrines of the Reformed denomination, withdrew and on the 31st of July, organized the German Evangelical Congregation St Louis. They worshiped in the Benton school house on Sixth Street between Locust and St Street until 1845 when they erected two churches one called the North Church, afterwards St German Evangelical Church at Carr and Fifteenth Streets, and the other known as South Church, afterwards St Marcus or St Mark's Church, at the of Jackson and Soulard Streets. Both were alike in size and design each being thirty by forty feet in dimensions and remained the common property of congregation until 1856, when a division was effected and two distinct churches were organized. 
The German Evangelical Congregation of St Louis in July, 1843, formed the nucleus of the Evangelical Synod of the West which has since over the United States. This Synod in with a few congregations in Canada is called German Evangelical Synod of North America, being the American Branch of the Prussian Church, it receives biennially the interest on a fund which was subscribed some twenty years ago, the Evangelical congregations of Prussia for benefit of their brethren in this country. The German Protestant Orphans Home Photo Link , formerly within city limits but now ten miles from the court on St Charles Rock road, was organized by the German Evangelical Synod as was also the Good Samaritan Hospital, Twenty-fifth and O Fallon Streets. 

Photo link 

German Churches in St Louis: Link 

Old St Marcus Cemetery Link

St Marcus: Link 

Tuesday, May 17, 2016

Frederick Flache and Catharine Halter*

Inspired by the writings of Gottfried Duden, many Germans sought to immigrate to Missouri in to be able to purchase cheap land and to have more business opportunities. "The first period brought us exclusively men of learning and standing, which cannot be said in reference to all the later comers who were divided so to speak into two classes men of the higher culture and others with but little education. Physicians, lawyers, clergymen, teachers, artists, professional men of all branches in one class, mechanics, peasants, journeymen, and laborers of all classes, formed the mass of the other."

"The party arrived in Baltimore in early June. Traveling by train, wagon, and steamboat, the immigrants reached St. Louis on July 2. (1834) (Source:The Letters Of Frederick Steines by Norma Steines Cunningham is a translation of correspondence, poetry, and songs written by a Missouri immigrant who was the first German schoolmaster west of the Mississippi River, Link
(Source: The Story of Old St. Louis, Thomas Edwin Spencer, 1914, p. 167, available on Google Books Link)
July 24, 1834 Frederick Flach age 34, arrived in the Port of Baltimore, Maryland on the ship Medora from Bremen, Germany with Hermine Flach age 7. The ship name sailed from Bremen Germany.

Dec 31, 1838 Frederick Flack marries Catharina Ann Halter in Cape Girardeau, Missouri. She is listed as newly arrived from Germany on the marriage certificate. She may have been the daughter of Ludwig  (Lewis) Halter

Marriage Records from Frederick Flach Link

In 1840 Frederick Flach living in Apple Creek, Cape Girardeau, Missouri
In 1850, he is living in St Louis Ward 6, St Louis (Independent City), Missouri:
Frederick Flach age 50, occupation: Clerk
Catharine Flach age 31
William Flach age 10
Adeline Flach age 9
Frederick Flach age 6
Ida Flach age 4
Charles Flach age 2

Children born after 1850:
Mathilda Flach: 1851
Clementine Flach: 1852
George Flach: 1855
Lenora and Laura (twins) were born in 1858

During the years 1857-1858 he is a Justice of the Peace. The 1857 City Directory listed Frederick as a Justice of the Peace in the 2nd Ward with an office at 17 Carondelet, residing on Fulton. You can find a list of these records by searching for the lost marriage records of Frederick Flach.

Frederick Flach died from a stroke on 15 Mar 1858. (St Louis Death Records). He is buried in Holy Ghost Evangelical and Reformed Cemetery,also known as The Evangelical Protestant Cemetery Association of the Church of the Holy Ghost, or Holy Ghost Cemetery Link

Probate Records: Link

Catherine Flach states: "that at the time of the inventory of her deceased husband, there were was no grain, meat, vegetables, groceries or other provisions on hand or provided, necessary for the subsistance of the widow and her Children."

There is a declaration (image 27) by Charles Frassy that says, "that he was well acquainted with the
with the circumstances of the family of Frederick Flach, dec'd at the time of making the inventory, that there were no provisions in the house of any kind, and that the friends of the family had to provide for them."

The request was for an appropriation of $150, it is unclear if the money was provided.

Monday, May 16, 2016

Flatboat and a Keel Boat  By Unknown - Link- originally Pittsburgh History & Landmarks, Public Domain, Link

Heavy groceries constituted a distinct branch of the trade of St Louis for many years. The Colliers, the Lacklands, the Glasgows, were dealers in heavy groceries. They would be called importers now. They brought to St Louis sugar by the boat load, coffee, tea, and a few other staples in enormous quantities, selling them at small margin as desired by jobbers. The business experience of Henry Von Phul, who lived to be the oldest merchant in St Louis and died in his 91st year, dated back to the first decade of the century when he was employed by James Hart at Lexington, Ky. Mr Hart was the brother in law of Heny Clay, and the son of the man for whom Thomas H Benton was named. Young Von Phul began his commercial career by taking charge of keel boats loaded with flour, lead, and provisions. He floated down stream, stopping at the principal towns on the Mississippi river, trading his products for cotton. He continued this until he reached New Orleans where he sold the cotton and other products that had not been traded, as well as the keel boats. He then returned on horseback to Lexington where he made up another shipment and repeated the voyage and the trading.